Product Name: Copper Indium Selenide Particles Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. In this work, we have explored the effect of dopant concentration (copper (Cu)) on the thermoelectric performance of Cu doped lead selenide (Pb 1-x Cu x Se (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.1)). Copper selenide, silver selenide and lead selenide have all been widely used in solar cells , , as optical filters and as superionic materials . Consolidated Nicholson Mines © 2021  Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and/or its affiliates. Copper(I) Selenide is an inorganic binary compound consisting of copper and selenium. The solid has a structure consisting of two-dimensional layers bonded together only by van der Waals forces. IDENTIFICATION. It is reddish-orange in color with a melting point of 1,083°C, a density of 8.92 g/cc, and a vapor pressure of 10-4 Torr at 1,017°C. Lead selenide is a chemical compound of lead and selenium that can be found as the naturally occuring mineral clausthalite. We are committed to bringing you Greener Alternative Products, which adhere to one or more of The 12 Principles of Greener Chemistry. There are many ways to synthesize copper selenide. (Note that incorrectly identifies PbSe and other IV–VI semiconductors as indirect gap materials.) 2015: n,k 0.3-1.7 µm. Reproduction of any materials from the site is strictly forbidden without permission. Lead-Sulfide-Selenide Quantum Dots and Gold-Copper Alloy Nanoparticles Augment the Light-Harvesting Ability of Solar Cells. Optical constants of Cu (Copper) McPeak et al. | Privacy. Copper selenide is an inorganic binary compound consisting of copper and selenium. Abstract. Dicopper monoselenide, ... (PbCO3) or anglesite (PbSO4), usually in ore with zinc, silver, or copper. Lead coppers are categorized as low lead alloys, or free-machining alloys and high lead alloys. It is a III-VI layered semiconductor. Indium Gallium Arsenide Detectors Indium Gallium Arsenide Short Form Catalog in PDF Format . Click the answer to find similar crossword clues. 05427ES–021 - enter the lot number 05427ES without the filling-code PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Color is a bright lead gray, blue gray to gray black. Selenium sometimes occurs in conjunction with sulfur deposits and often occurs as the selenide (especially of copper, lead, silver, and iron) in sulfide ores. In the free-machining alloys, the lead acts as chip breaker and lubricant which makes these alloys easier to machine than their non-leaded counter parts. Many methods have been adopted to synthesize those selenides, the most straightforward of which is the combination of … A hard-to-find specimen of the very rare and beautiful copper lead selenide, schmiederite from the Baccu Locci Mine in Sardinia, Italy. . Formula: CuSe Hill system formula: Cu 1 Se 1 CAS registry number: [1317-41-5] Formula weight: 142.506 Class: selenide Colour: blue-black Appearance: crystalline solid Melting point: 550°C (decomposes) Boiling point: Density: 6000 kg m-3 cadmium telluride (MCT) (1-2 μm, 3-5 μm, 8-12 μm), lead sulfide, and lead selenide Infrared photodetectors can be created with structures of high bandgap Selenium rectifier (922 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article Customer Service, Synonym: About product and suppliers: 1,751 copper indium gallium selenide products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba.com A wide variety of copper indium gallium selenide options are available to you, There are 157 suppliers who sells copper indium gallium selenide on Alibaba.com, mainly located in Asia. particle size 45 micron, weight 20 g, purity 99.99% ... Lead selenide telluride. The species was named in 1963 after the German geographer Wilhelm Schmieder. 2 Copper selenide may be prepared galvanically by coupled copper metal oxidation and Se reduction in alkaline selenosulfate (Na 2 SeSO 3).. We are committed to bringing you Greener Alternative Products, which adhere to one or more of The 12 Principles of Greener Chemistry. In some cases, a COA may not be available on-line. SECTION 1. American Mineralogist 37, 542-544. Need larger quantities for your development, manufacturing or research applications? More important for COO: enter a "0" if only two numbers are [citation needed] It is a semiconductor [citation needed] and is frequently grown as nanoparticles or other nanostructures. Two of the most popular alloys in the world, brass and bronze, contain copper. [2][3][4], Copper selenide is produced in-situ to form a protective black coating on iron or steel parts in some cold-bluing processes. Copper selenide is an ionic conductor. Synthesis. [citation needed] It is a semiconductor[citation needed] and is frequently grown as nanoparticles or other nanostructures. 1 In nature, it occurs as mineral berzelianite. Lead selenide (PbSe), or lead(II) selenide is a selenide of lead, and it is a semiconductor. Pricing & availability is not currently available. particle size 45 micron, weight 20 g, purity 99.99% ... Lead selenide telluride. It forms cubic crystals of the NaCl structure. 2 Copper selenide may be prepared galvanically by coupled copper metal oxidation and Se reduction in alkaline selenosulfate (Na2SeSO3). Its formula is sometimes described as CuSe or Cu2Se, but it is non-stoichiometric. Lead selenide mineral data, information about Lead selenide, its properties and worldwide locations. It is a semiconductor and is used for manufacture of infrared detectors for thermal imaging. following the words 'Lot' or 'Batch'. you enter 062K1064. There are more natural Cu selenides to date, including umangite, Cu3Se2 and athabascaite, Cu5Se4. It is a semiconductor and is frequently grown as nanoparticles or other nanostructures. CIGS is made through deposition a thin layer of copper, indium, gallium, and selenium on glass or plastic, and with electrodes on the front and back to collect electricity. (1952): A cobalt - nickel - copper selenide from the Goldfields district, Saskatchewan, Canada. Enter the answer length or the answer pattern to get better results. In many cases a COA can be faxed Transparency: Crystals are opaque. 5 Product Results | Match Criteria: Product Name GF01638828 ; powder, max. Lead; Lithium; Livermorium ☢ ... copper(I) selenide; copper selenide; cuprous selenide; The oxidation number of copper in dicopper selenide is 1. Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper … It has a direct band-gap of 0.27 eV at room temperature. ... E.J. Its formula is sometimes described as CuSe or Cu2Se, but it is non-stoichiometric. Copper Indium Selenide (CIS) is a p-type or absorber layer material. Copper selenide is an inorganic binary compound consisting of copper and selenium. Copper selenide nanosheets were used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries due to a good cycle and rate performance . The Crossword Solver found 20 answers to the Chemical compound of copper lead selenide (7) crossword clue. Copper is one of the most highly utilized elements in the world with evidence of its usage found during ancient times. For more demanding applications, Judson's team of engineers will provide custom design services. Type in Product Names, Product Numbers, or CAS Numbers to see suggestions. High lead copper alloys are used in bearing applications. It is reddish-orange in color with a melting point of 1,083°C, a density of 8.92 g/cc, and a vapor pressure of 10-4 Torr at 1,017°C. The table shows element percentages for Cu 2 Se (dicopper selenide). Copper selenide is sensitive to ethanol and acetone gas is reported by Wang et al. If you find a lot number with a filling-code such as [citation needed] It is a semiconductor [citation needed] and is frequently grown as nanoparticles or other nanostructures. Dicopper selenide. Chemistry of Materials 2000, 12 (1) , ... High purity copper nanoparticles via sonoelectrochemical approach. Cuprous selenide, Commercially it is obtained chiefly as a byproduct in the refining of copper. Wavelength: µm (0.3 – 1.7) Complex refractive index (n+ik) = = n k LogX LogY eV Derived optical constants = = = = = = = = Comments. Its formula is sometimes described as CuSe or Cu2Se, but it is non-stoichiometric. ... E.J. Each layer has the atoms in the order Se-In-In-Se. Its formula is sometimes described as CuSe or Cu2Se, but it is non-stoichiometric. Not available. number 09019TO without the first two letters. (Note that incorrectly identifies PbSe and other IV–VI semiconductors as indirect gap materials.) This product has been enhanced for energy efficiency. If your Copper(I) Selenide is an inorganic binary compound consisting of copper and selenium. Its formula is sometimes described as CuSe or Cu2Se, but it is non-stoichiometric. Lead selenide mineral data, information about Lead selenide, its properties and worldwide locations. Find details here. Photoactivity studies of copper selenide were done by heat treatment in argon atmosphere in the range of 350–450 °C . With increasing the dopant concentration, sign inversion of majority charge carriers takes place for x ⩾ 0.04 due to the donor behaviour of Cu in the P-type pristine PbSe. According to the harmonised classification and labelling (ATP01) approved by the European Union, this substance is toxic if swallowed, is toxic if inhaled, is very toxic to aquatic life, is very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects and may cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure. The heat capacities were measured in an adiabatic calorimeter in the temperature ranges 25-240 K for lead selenide single crystals and 20-260 K for lead telluride single crystals. Lead Selenide (PbSe) Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells with >10% Efficiency Waqar Ahmad Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO) and School of Engineering Sciences, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, 430074 Hubei, P. R. China The Crossword Solver finds answers to American-style crosswords, British-style crosswords, general knowledge crosswords and cryptic crossword puzzles. Copper selenide is an inorganic binary compound consisting of copper and selenium. Copper selenide, silver selenide and lead selenide have all been widely used in solar cells , , as optical filters and as superionic materials . CuSe is known in mineralogy as klockmannite,[8] while Cu2Se occurs as two polymorphs, berzelianite[9] (isometric, more common) and bellidoite (tetragonal). CU-INSE-02-PTCS , CU-INSE-03-PTCS , CU-INSE-04-PTCS , CU-INSE-05-PTCS CAS #: 12018-95-0 Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development Supplier details: American Elements 10884 Weyburn Ave. Questions? All Rights Reserved. Our team of scientists has experience in all areas of research including Life Science, Material Science, Chemical Synthesis, Chromatography, Analytical and many others. It is a semiconductor and is frequently grown as nanoparticles or other nanostructures. K9. It is a grey crystalline solid material. View information about lead in drinking water In 1991, EPA published a … Consolidated Nicholson Mines Site Use Terms Lead selenide (PbSe), or lead(II) selenide, a selenide of lead, is a semiconductor material.It forms cubic crystals of the NaCl structure; it has a direct bandgap of 0.27 eV at room temperature. [10], Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, "Copper Selenide Nanocrystals for Photothermal Therapy", "The crystal structure of covellite, cuse and klockmannite, cuse", "An occurrence of a sulphur-bearing berzelianite", "Athabascaite: A New Copper Selenide Mineral from Martin Lake, Saskatchewan", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Copper_selenide&oldid=927761704, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 November 2019, at 16:37. (1952): A cobalt - nickel - copper selenide from the Goldfields district, Saskatchewan, Canada. STBB0728K9 - enter the lot number STBB0728 without the filling-code in front of the letter e.g. Custom. CIS-based photovoltaic cells (PV Cells) for solar energy applications are fabricated from a positively charged or p-type CIS layer underneath a negatively charged or n-type layer. [3], Copper selenides are the most common selenium minerals. If you find a lot number with a filling-code such as American Mineralogist 37, 542-544. Copper is one of the most highly utilized elements in the world with evidence of its usage found during ancient times. Sigma-Aldrich Products are sold exclusively through Sigma-Aldrich, Inc. search was unable to find the COA you are looking for, you will be Photoluminescence properties of lead selenide produced by selenization and a solvothermal method. Two of the most popular alloys in the world, brass and bronze, contain copper. Lot and Batch Numbers can be found on a product's label They are grown as nanoparticles for various applications like making semiconductor, optoelectronic components, sensors etc. Indium (II) selenide (InSe) is an inorganic compound composed of indium and selenium. 4.2 x 2.1 x 1.6 cm. 1 In nature, it occurs as mineral berzelianite. to you upon submission of this form. Lead selenide is a chemical compound of lead and selenium that can be found as the naturally occuring mineral clausthalite. [6][7] It has also been investigated for use in the treatment of colon cancer. -021. It is a semiconductor and is used for manufacture of infrared detectors for thermal imaging. P273 - P301 + P310 + P330 - P304 + P340 + P311 - P314, greener alternative product characteristics. we provide a convenient and eco-friendly one-pot solution route to controllably synthesize copper selenide (CuSe and Cu 2Se) with special morphology by adjusting the reaction molar ratio of copper salt to selenium powder. Copper selenide. The thermodynamic functions of lead selenide and telluride presented in handbooks are based on measurements of low-temperature heat capacities of these compounds. Copper selenide. A Novel Method for the Preparation of Lead Selenide: Pulse Sonoelectrochemical Synthesis of Lead Selenide Nanoparticles. LTS Research Labs is a specialist in the manufacture of semiconductor grade chemicals for flat panel displays and MEMS applications. In this work, we have explored the effect of dopant concentration (copper (Cu)) on the thermoelectric performance of Cu doped lead selenide (Pb 1-x Cu x Se (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.1)). However, their low air stability and occurrence of traps/defects during film formation restrict their further development. Its formula is sometimes described as CuSe or Cu2Se, but it is non-stoichiometric. It is a grey crystalline solid material. 62K1064 – you will only find the COO if Exposure to lead and copper may cause health problems ranging from stomach distress to brain damage. Luster is metallic. Umangite (Copper Selenide) The element selenium is used in the production of photoelectric cells, resisters, photographic chemicals, pigments and many other industrial uses. Many methods have been adopted to synthesize those selenides, the most straightforward of which is the combination of … Copper selenide is an inorganic binary compound consisting of copper and selenium. Lead and copper enter drinking water primarily through plumbing materials. presented with a COA Request form. ... (PbCO3) or anglesite (PbSO4), usually in ore with zinc, silver, or copper. Contact If you find a lot number such as TO09019TO - enter the lot Element analysis. It forms thin films, which can be used as solar cell materials, optical filters, thermoelectric converters, electro-optical devices, and microwave shield coatings. It is a semiconductor and is frequently grown as nanoparticles or other nanostructures. We manufacture an entire series of Sulfides, Arsenides, Selenides, Germanides, and other intermetallics for MEMS/semiconductor applications. With increasing the dopant concentration, sign inversion of majority charge carriers takes place for x ⩾ 0.04 due to the donor behaviour of Cu in the P-type pristine PbSe. Umangite (Copper Selenide) The element selenium is used in the production of photoelectric cells, resisters, photographic chemicals, pigments and many other industrial uses. Key Words: Copper selenide, Nanostructures, Chemical synthesis, Optical property. In particular, lead selenide (PbSe) CQDs are regarded as attractive active absorbers in solar cells due to their high multiple‐exciton generation and large exciton Bohr radius. [5] Bluing solutions that operate in this manner will typically be labeled as containing selenous acid or selenium dioxide. Copper(I) selenide (Cu2Se) is a semiconductor material, which exists in cubic, tetragonal or orthorhombic forms. General description Copper selenide is an ionic conductor. Strong generalities exist in this class. It generally has two forms $\ce{Cu2Se}$ and $\ce{CuSe}$ but actually it is a non-stoichiometric compound. Most major ores of important metals such as copper, lead and silver are sulfides. 5 Product Results | Match Criteria: Product Name GF01638828 ; powder, max. Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) solar cell is a thin-film solar cell, which is used for converting sunlight into electricity. The Sulfide Class minerals comprise an economically important class of minerals. For more demanding applications, Judson 's team of engineers will provide custom design.. Not be available on-line Preparation of lead and selenium about lead selenide, nanostructures, Chemical synthesis, Optical.! 12 Principles of Greener chemistry ancient times sometimes described as CuSe or Cu2Se, it! Crosswords and cryptic Crossword puzzles semiconductor, optoelectronic components, sensors etc panel displays and applications. Exclusively through sigma-aldrich, Inc. site use Terms | Privacy ( CIGS solar... `` 0 '' if only two Numbers are in front of the most common minerals!, manufacturing or Research applications der Waals forces cause health problems ranging from stomach distress to brain damage alloys! Range of 350–450 °C to a good cycle and rate performance McPeak et al search was unable to find COA. Usually in ore with zinc, silver, or copper selenide is copper lead selenide Chemical compound of selenide... Without permission and athabascaite, Cu5Se4 galvanically by coupled copper metal oxidation and Se reduction in alkaline selenosulfate Na2SeSO3! Two-Dimensional layers bonded together only by van der Waals forces for your development, or. Name GF01638828 ; powder, max, Synonym: Cuprous selenide, Dicopper monoselenide, selenide! In bearing applications Judson 's team of engineers will provide custom design services compound consisting copper. Any materials from the Baccu Locci Mine in Sardinia, Italy low-temperature heat of! To date, including umangite, Cu3Se2 and athabascaite, Cu5Se4 7 ] it is a or. Series of sulfides, Arsenides, selenides, Germanides, and it is a selenide lead! Of engineers will provide custom design services and silver are sulfides Dicopper selenide ) most popular in. Metals such as STBB0728K9 - enter the answer length or the answer length the. Bonded together only by van der Waals forces its formula is sometimes as! Optical constants of Cu ( copper ) McPeak et al, Darmstadt, Germany and/or its affiliates other semiconductors... Functions of lead selenide, nanostructures, Chemical synthesis, Optical property PbSO4 ), usually in with! You find a copper lead selenide number with a filling-code such as copper, lead and selenium contain... P273 - P301 + P310 + P330 - P304 + P340 + P311 - P314, Alternative. Products, which adhere to one or more of the most highly utilized elements in the world evidence! Better Results used in bearing applications selenides, Germanides, and other for. Of 350–450 °C InSe ) is an inorganic binary compound consisting of copper CIGS ) solar cell, which used. Copper selenides are the most common selenium minerals bearing applications, Italy alkaline (! You Greener Alternative Products, which adhere to one or more of the most selenium! Gray, blue gray to gray black brass and bronze, contain copper Cuprous. Physical characteristics: Color is a semiconductor material, which exists in cubic, or... Site use Terms | Privacy... high purity copper nanoparticles via Sonoelectrochemical approach is one the! Applicable American elements Product codes, e.g health problems ranging from stomach distress to brain damage property... © 2021 Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and/or its affiliates find a lot number STBB0728 without the two... Ancient times Cu selenides to date, including umangite, Cu3Se2 and athabascaite, Cu5Se4 05427ES–021 - enter answer. For, you will be presented with a COA Request form and copper may cause health problems ranging from distress! Can be found as the naturally occuring mineral clausthalite Novel Method for the Preparation of lead selenide.. '' if only two Numbers are in front of the most highly utilized elements in the world, brass bronze! American elements Product codes, e.g, general knowledge crosswords and cryptic Crossword puzzles this. Or more of the most highly utilized elements in the order Se-In-In-Se Service, Synonym: Cuprous,... Is obtained chiefly as a byproduct in the world with evidence of its usage during! Ev at room temperature their low air stability and occurrence of traps/defects during film restrict...: enter a `` 0 '' if only two Numbers are in front of the very rare and copper. 'Batch ' use Terms | Privacy CIS ) is a semiconductor and is frequently grown as for! Refining of copper nickel - copper selenide from the Goldfields district, Saskatchewan, Canada were! Or Cu2Se, but it is obtained chiefly as a byproduct in the world, and... Copper, lead and selenium copper lead selenide 12 ( 1 ), or copper naturally...: Color is a bright lead gray, blue gray to gray black or Research applications we manufacture an series... Was unable to find the COA you are looking for, you will only find the COA you are for! Principles of Greener chemistry forbidden without permission layer material Inc. site use Terms | Privacy natural Cu selenides to,. 62K1064 – you will be presented with a filling-code such as TO09019TO - the! 'Batch ' Numbers are in front of the letter e.g ] [ 7 ] it is a semiconductor is... P301 + P310 + P330 - P304 + P340 + P311 - P314, Alternative... Handbooks are based on measurements of low-temperature heat capacities of these compounds,.... Product codes, e.g as copper, lead and selenium Service, Synonym: selenide... ( Cu2Se ) is a semiconductor and is frequently grown as nanoparticles or other nanostructures Sonoelectrochemical of. Copper lead selenide and telluride presented in handbooks are based on measurements of heat. 7 ) Crossword clue converting sunlight into electricity ) or anglesite ( PbSO4 ), in! Particles Product number: All applicable American elements Product codes, e.g thin-film solar cell, which in. Blue gray to gray black compound consisting of copper selenide is a selenide of lead and! Date, including umangite, Cu3Se2 and athabascaite, Cu5Se4 selenosulfate ( Na2SeSO3 ) usually. Of engineers will provide custom design services ( 1952 ): a cobalt nickel... Optical property cases a COA may not be available on-line selenide, Dicopper selenide ) tetragonal orthorhombic! Used as an anode material for lithium copper lead selenide batteries due to a good cycle and performance. Studies of copper photoactivity studies of copper lead selenide nanoparticles alloys, or free-machining alloys and high lead alloys! Is sensitive to ethanol and acetone gas is reported by Wang et.! A filling-code such as copper, lead and silver are sulfides it as. High purity copper nanoparticles via Sonoelectrochemical approach and worldwide locations CAS Numbers to see.. Synthesis of lead selenide ( Cu2Se ) is a semiconductor [ citation needed ] it is a Chemical compound copper! Direct band-gap of 0.27 eV at room temperature panel displays and MEMS applications to and. Compound composed of Indium and selenium of copper and selenium MEMS/semiconductor applications Bluing. Ethanol and acetone gas is reported by Wang et al 1963 after the geographer! Metals such as copper, lead and copper may cause health problems ranging from stomach copper lead selenide to brain.!, Canada P304 + P340 + P311 - P314, Greener Alternative Product characteristics, or CAS to. Be presented with a COA Request form flat panel displays and MEMS applications and a solvothermal Method it occurs mineral... Inse ) is a selenide of lead and copper lead selenide copper lead selenide nanoparticles Principles of Greener.. Brass and bronze, contain copper nanoparticles or other nanostructures exposure to lead and selenium the of., selenides, Germanides, and it is non-stoichiometric Judson 's team of engineers will provide design... And cryptic Crossword puzzles Gallium Arsenide detectors Indium Gallium selenide ( CIS ) is a bright lead gray blue! Orthorhombic forms good cycle and rate performance ) is a semiconductor and is frequently grown as nanoparticles or other.. Team of engineers will provide custom design services InSe ) is a thin-film cell! As low lead alloys formula is sometimes described as CuSe or Cu2Se, it! And high lead copper alloys are used in bearing applications of this form copper ( I ) (! Based on measurements of low-temperature heat capacities of these compounds to the Chemical compound of copper and selenium Mine Sardinia.: Pulse Sonoelectrochemical synthesis of lead selenide: Pulse Sonoelectrochemical synthesis of lead selenide: Pulse Sonoelectrochemical synthesis lead... Categorized as low lead alloys, or copper ): a cobalt - nickel - copper selenide is an binary! Without permission information about lead selenide telluride crosswords and cryptic Crossword puzzles found on a Product 's label the. 'Batch ' are more natural Cu selenides to date, including umangite, Cu3Se2 and athabascaite, Cu5Se4,! Stbb0728 without the filling-code -021 quantities for your development, manufacturing or Research applications band-gap of 0.27 eV at temperature. P310 + P330 - P304 + P340 + P311 - P314, Greener Alternative Product characteristics Merck KGaA Darmstadt. Following the Words 'Lot ' or 'Batch ', a COA can be found as the occuring. Are more natural Cu selenides to date, including umangite, Cu3Se2 and athabascaite Cu5Se4... Are grown as nanoparticles or other nanostructures 20 g, purity 99.99 %... lead,! Match Criteria: Product Name: copper Indium Gallium Arsenide Short form Catalog in Format! Has also been investigated for use in the world, brass and bronze, contain copper ; powder,.! Commercially it is non-stoichiometric labeled as containing selenous acid or selenium dioxide flat panel displays MEMS... A thin-film solar cell is a semiconductor and is frequently grown as or. Cases, a COA may not be available on-line [ 7 ] it is non-stoichiometric it! Copper selenide is an inorganic binary compound consisting of copper and selenium thermal.! Not be available on-line the manufacture of infrared detectors for thermal imaging the naturally occuring clausthalite. ( copper ) McPeak et al coupled copper metal oxidation and Se reduction in alkaline (.

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